Assessment and evaluation of the experience of local government administration in Sudan ✍️ Professor: Fikri Kabbashi Al-Amin Al-Arabi

When we consider the local government system in Sudan, we find that it developed over a century, with the period spanning from 1899 AD until 1998 AD, which began with the Bilateral Government Agreement ( the Anglo-Egyptian agreement) of January 19, 1899 AD. Therefore, we find that local government in Sudan has been influenced by all three models. The most famous local government system in the world is the British system, the French system and the Soviet system, since local government systems are basically derived from these three models. the result of the social and economic factors prevailing in the country, which in their result reflect aspects of local administration, and although the local government system in Sudan is influenced by the three aforementioned systems, it has borrowed some of their elements to the French and American systems. Soviet systems, but the greatest and strongest influence is considered to be the British system, which was rooted in the local government system of Sudan. Despite Sudan's rich experience in local government over a relatively long historical period, its progress towards implementing true decentralization as a system of governance and administration is still faltering. Serious attempts have begun since the enactment of the 1951 Act to implement the law. There is a decentralized system of governance in Sudan, but many factors have hindered achieving this goal in the desired manner. Among these factors are those linked to the cultural and historical structure of Sudanese society, which have contributed to consolidating the trend towards centralization. The greatest impact may be due to the influence of the colonial era, which left a heavy cultural legacy that is difficult to get rid of easily, because the colonizer. All his intentions in his general policy were mainly focused on maintaining an iron fist over everything. the territories of its colonies, and this could certainly only be achieved under the aegis of a deeply centralized system of government and administration. The situation continued in the same manner even under successive national government regimes that took over in Sudan. Central governments, under all political systems, strove to control local government councils by sometimes placing them under strict indirect or direct supervision, restricting them by promulgating laws, regulations and issuances which limit their movement, as well as than by making local authorities stricter. government units depend on its financial support to cover their expenses and finance their local projects, as well as by the dependence of these units on the central government to provide them with qualified administrative and technical cadres to carry out the work and tasks that they require. are assigned.

Native administration has also played a major role in hindering the development of local government in Sudan. Furthermore, it passed on to the local government all its weaknesses and even eliminated it through the insistence of clan leaders and tribal sheikhs to occupy leadership positions. in its administrative structures, even for those who do not meet the eligibility conditions, despite the awareness that has spread among citizens about the diffusion of educational institutions and the qualitative and quantitative progress of the means of communication and transport , but all that is. instead of an openness to society with all its components, but this led to the insistence and an increase in the control of the indigenous administration over the reins of business, to which is added the incoherence of the parties in periods of pluralist democracy. people relied on the favor of tribal leaders to win parliamentary elections, which were based more on tribal loyalty to the leaders of the native administration than on electoral agendas focused on programs related to the lives of ordinary citizens, providing services in the areas of education and health, preparing the local environment and paying attention to local development projects that lead to providing sources of income and employment opportunities to the citizens of these localities.

Anyone following the topic will find that despite claims by successive central governments to govern Sudan in a decent manner, none of these governments have taken the necessary steps to create stable local government bodies with sufficient financial and human capacity and 'sufficient autonomy so that citizens feel that they are managing their affairs by actions and not by words, given that they are the ones who know best the nature of their problems and the means to resolve them.

Teacher: Fikri Kabbashi Al-Amin Al-Arabi.

April 23, 2024 AD.

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