Inspired by Singapore's experience of renaissance and development ✍️ Professor: Fikri Kabashi, Al-Amin Al-Arabi

Singapore's renaissance is not the result of the moment, but rather the result of the great efforts of Singapore's state hero, Lee Kuan Yew. He appeared before the media, bursting into tears after Malaysia's decision to secede and abandon the state. the island of Singapore, of which it was part. Malaysia dealt a heavy blow in 1965 to this small, poor country with limited resources. It suffered greatly from administrative, financial and security corruption, and Singapore was ranked at that time as one of the most important. dangerous places of the world due to its exposure to crimes and thefts, security chaos has prevailed to a very large extent.

The Republic of Singapore is a very small country in terms of land area. When it gained independence in 1965, its area was no more than half the area of ​​Bahrain, nor a tenth of the area of ​​the emirate of Dubai (and I do not want to compare it to any of the regions and states of Sudan with their resources).

It also does not have any natural resources on its territory. There is no oil at all! There is no natural gas and there is no mineral wealth that can be explored. Furthermore, it gained independence at a time of unrest in a region lacking political stability. Worse still, its population is multi-ethnic. Chinese make up 75%, while Malays make up 15% and Indians make up 8%. If we turn to beliefs, the situation is no better, because we have before us a very diverse mix that includes Muslims, Christians, Hindus, Buddhists, Taoists and other religions and sects. Knowing this, it is not surprising that outside observers then confidently predicted that Singapore would not survive and that its failure would result from external pressures or internal unrest. However, contrary to all their expectations, Singapore became the most prosperous country in modern human history, as it managed to improve the living standards of its population at a faster and more comprehensive rate than any other country.

In the quality of life index published by the Economist Intelligence Unit in The Economist magazine, Singapore ranks first in Asia and eleventh in the world and has the ninth highest reserve in the world. The country has a well-equipped national army that relies on. the newest weapons, according to the Henley index. In 2014, the Singaporean passport ranked sixth in the world, allowing its holder to enter 167 countries without a prior visa. Singapore has now become the fourth most important financial center in the world and the fifth richest country in the world in terms of hard currency reserves. It is the third largest source of foreign exchange, with five and a half million tourists arriving in Singapore each year. The average per capita income of gross national product reached sixty-four thousand dollars in 2013, placing Singapore as the fourth largest financial center in the world. The unemployment rate does not reach three percent and it is considered the leading financial and technological center in the region. The cleanest city in the world has beautiful views and clean air. Skyscrapers, buildings with modern and elegant geometric shapes, tall palm trees, trees and beautiful green gardens make it a paradise on earth.

How did Singapore, which is just a small island in Southeast Asia, with no natural resources, become one of the most developed countries in the world? How did its government system and political structure allow it to create the world's largest economies and most prosperous societies in just a few decades? What is the “secret sauce” behind Singapore’s success? Just consider the essential ingredient of this success: the merit-based system. Through a unique combination of policies that prioritize merit, competence and merit above all other characteristics, Singapore has been able to develop an equitable education system for all and an advanced civil service that ensures effective government action, raises standards of national productivity, achieves sustainable development and establishes societal cohesion. The meritocratic system of governance was truly the engine of Singapore's progress. After returning from Oxford University, Lee Kuan Yew was a good lawyer and a seasoned politician, the first general secretary and one of the founding members of the People's Action Party. He saw the level of backwardness and reactionary his country had reached, which made him even more regretful and remorseful for a country that some considered to be outside of planet Earth. The parliamentary elections were held and Lee Kuan Yew won the position of Prime Minister of the planet. Republic of Singapore and ruled it for three consecutive decades, creating a modern renaissance under this reign in the difficult and arduous circumstances his country witnessed.

He received many shocks during his reign, because he could not do anything except a poor and backward people and a poor government, accustomed to living on administrative, financial and moral corruption. A country full of bribery, looting of public money, and ethnic communal conflicts and conflicts between more than three races: Chinese, Malays, Indians and East Asians. He dreamed of transferring…Singapore from the third world country to the first world. He built a homeland for the citizen, not a homeland for himself, because the island was just a fishing village devoid of natural resources. It was founded by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles in 1819 AD, and its importance as a port for warships emerged. Since that time.

Lee Kuan Yew began to change his country's systems and gradually enact new laws, curbing the administrative and financial corruption of his government and people. Lee Kuan Yew succeeded in building an economic renaissance and making his country a united country. The Singaporean himself, through education, the intensification of scientific missions abroad and the development of the humanitarian and industrial level as a whole, has made Singapore his path. By relying on human resources and qualified people, Lee Kuan Yew understood that there is no economic renaissance except in the investment and qualification of the individual himself. He therefore developed modern scientific programs and focused on teacher training, because it is the essential basis for building the future. generations. Its population exceeds five and a half million and its area is 2,776 square miles. Thus, Lee Kuan Yew is considered a legend of the magic of the past and the glory of the future Lee Kuan Yew, the builder of the Singaporean renaissance, managed to extinguish all these ethnic conflicts within the country, by unifying the language. and made the nation's priorities first and applied them to all religious and ethnic classes, and that the nation belongs to all.

Singapore's economy is considered a free market economy and the economy is ranked as the most open in the world and the third least corrupt economy. It is also ranked as the most business-friendly economy. Singapore's tax rates are low (14.2% of the economy). GDP), and the country ranks third in the world in terms of GDP per capita (purchasing power parity). In addition to being a business-friendly economy, Singapore's state-owned enterprises play an important role in the country's economy. The fund called Temasek Holdings holds majority stakes in several of the country's largest companies, such as Singapore Airlines, Singtel, ST Engineering and Media Corp. The Singaporean economy is considered one of the main financiers of the flow of foreign direct investments around the world. has also benefited from the influx of foreign direct investment from global investors and institutions thanks to its very attractive investment climate, as well as the stable and diversified political environment in recent years. Singapore's exports include the field of electronics, chemicals and service industry, and exports are the main source of income for the country's economy. Singapore does not have sufficient natural resources, especially water resources, which are scarce, so the country relies heavily on other countries to import the natural resources and raw materials it lacks. The country enjoys a regionally respected position as a wealth management center. Singapore also has limited areas of arable land, so the country relies heavily on agricultural technology complexes for agricultural production, and the Biopolis Center is a pioneer in this area. Human resources constitute another vital issue for the Singapore economy. In 2014, Singapore's economy ranked second in the Scientific American Biotechnology rankings. As I mentioned, Singapore relies on purchasing raw materials and refining them for re-export, as is the case in the chip industry and oil refining.

Singapore has a strategic port which makes it more competitive than many of its neighbors in carrying out such commercial activities. In 2017, the port of Singapore ranked second in the world in terms of cargo movement. Singapore's trade-to-GDP ratio is among the highest in the world, averaging around 400% during 2008-2011. To maintain its international position and increase its economic prosperity in the 21st century, Singapore has taken steps to promote innovation, encourage entrepreneurship and retrain the workforce. The Ministry of Manpower is the agency responsible for establishing, amending and implementing immigration rules for foreign workers, as approximately 243,000 foreign workers work in Singapore.

Teacher: Fikri Kabbashi, Al-Amin Al-Arabi.

April 25, 2024 AD.

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